Mitomycin, mode of action and synthetic approach

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>> Tuesday, October 27, 2009

Mitomycins

Mitomycins, first discovered in 1958, are isolated from the extracts of genus streptomyces e.g mitomycin C is extracted from the bacterium Streptomyces lavendulae and is far the most known compound of the series. Clinically; they have been used since 1960’s and are class of very potent antibacterial and anti-cancer compounds having a broad activity against a range of tumors. They exert their biological activity through DNA alkylation and cross-linking.
Biosynthesis of mitomycins
Mitomycins are biosynthesized by the combination of 3-amino-5-hydroxy benzoic acid (AHBA), D-glucosamine and carbamoyl phosphate. AHBA is also precursor for other antibiotics such as rifamycin and anamycin.
Mode of action of mitomycin C


Flash chromatography

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>> Saturday, October 17, 2009

Flash chromatography, simply defined as rapid form of preparative column chromatography, is very useful tool for the separation or purification of compounds. It was first used in 1978 (W.Clark Still et al, 1978, J. Org. Chem, 43, 14, 2923). Previously, air pressure was used but nowadays pre-packed column with automated pumps are developed. The glass columns have been replaced with prepacked plastic cartridges and systems are linked with detectors and fraction collectors.

The distinct advantages of flash chromatography over normal chromatography are:-


Neuroprotective Effect of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate

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>> Tuesday, October 13, 2009

On previous post (Link), the role of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in cancer was mentioned. Researchers have also studied its neuroprotective effect for Alzheimer disease (Kim, C.Y. et al., Arch. Pharm. Res. 32, 6, 869-881, 2009).
Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the most common types of chronic neurodegenerative disorders, is characterized by progressive loss of neurons and synapses in the brain with the appearance of extraneuronal accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) and intraneuronal deposition of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Aβ peptide, a major component of senile plaques has been regarded to play a crucial role in the development and neuropathogenesis of AD. Various in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that Aβ deteriorates a variety of neuronal and glial functions leading to apoptotic death of these cells. These damages are mediated via oxidative and nitrosative stress. Several studies have demonstrated that Aβ stimulated iNOS induction and subsequent NO production in in vitro cell culture models of microglia and astrocytes. Moreover Aβ has been shown to exert synergistic action with cytokines via an NO-dependent pathway. Therefore, reducing reactive nitrogen species (RNS) level directly or indirectly could be a strategy for prevention and therapeutic intervention in AD.


Role of Gingseng on antiproliferative activity of 5-Fluorouracil

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>> Monday, October 12, 2009

Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A meyer) roots are commonly used in oriental countries for various purposes (as adaptogen or tonic, aphrodisiacs, nourishing stimulants, and in the treatment of type II diabetes, hepatitis as well as sexual dysfunction in men). Recently it has also been studied for antiulcer (Choon Sik Jeong et. al., 2003, Arch. Pharm.Res vol 26, No 11, 906-911), antiangiognesis, antiproliferation and apoptosis. This post will cover the enhancement of antiproliferative effect of 5-fluorouracil on human colorectal cancer by Gingseng (Anna B. Fishbein et. al., 2009, Arch.Pharm.Res Vol 32, No 4, 505-513). Before going to the study, let’s talk in brief about the gingseng.
Gingseng are slow growing perennial herbs. Gingseng are classified as Red gingseng (RG) and White ginseng (WG) based on the heat treatment. Former is heat treated or steamed whereas latter one unsteamed. Most of the herbalists prefer RG over WG for the treatment of various conditions. Active constituents of ginseng are various saponins commonly referred as ginsenosides. WG is grown for four to six years, and then peeled and dried to reduce the water content to 12% or less. RG is harvested after six years, is not peeled instead steamed, giving reddish-brown appearance. It is believed that steam treatment change its biochemical composition and prevent breakdown of the active ingredients.


Nobel Prize Chemistry 2009

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>> Friday, October 09, 2009

The Nobel Prize in chemistry 2009 was shared by three scientist for their pioneering studies "on the structure and function of ribosome". They have revealed the structure of ribosme, key enzyme for protein synthesis, by using X-ray crystallography. Congratulation to nobel laureates for achieving prize with their great contribution 

Discovery of ribosome structure is a great achievment and will be a great tool in the field of drug discovery  . e.g antibacterial agents, anticancer agents etc.
"Nobel laureates in chemistry 2009"


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